Makers of the 20th Century

By Basil Davidson

In 1945 Tito wrote. ‘We mean to make Yugoslavia both democratic and independent’. How was this possible, asks Basil Davidson, for a war-torn Communist country in a world of super-powers?

By Alfred Stepan

Alfred Stepan argues that the romantic acclaim of Fidel Castro as a revolutionary guerrilla leader disregards the practical achievements and structural changes he has brought to Cuba and distorts his world-view of revolution.

By Barnet Litvinoff

With their differing approaches Weizmann and Ben-Gurion were the founding fathers of the state of Israel. Inspired by Herzl they laboured to give Zionism unity, force, world respect and, ultimately, a homeland.

Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943.

By Paul Dukes

'The cult of personality' means that for the West Stalin personified the arbitrary terror of the Soviet regime: yet he must also stand for the USSR's greatest achievements of modernisation and industrialisation, argues Paul Dukes. 

Winston Churchill giving the 'V' sign, on 20 May 1940.

By Paul Addison

The 'Churchill Question' is a complex one: a study in failure as well as success.

Hitler miming gestures to a record of his speeches; one of an extraordinary series of photographs he commissioned in 1925 to aid self-analysis and improve his hold over an audience.

By Jeremy Noakes

Hitler's contribution to the history of the twentieth century has been one of destruction. The war he started in 1939, argues Jeremy Noakes, was to recast the pattern of our world irreparably.

Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, August 14, 1935

By S.G.F. Spackman

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the longest-serving American President, has been accused of 'spineless government that betrayed the integrity of American ideals'. S.G.F. Spackman shows us that there are other ways of interpreting his policies.

Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, in the late 1920s

By Judith M. Brown

Gandhi's lasting significance lies, perhaps, not so much in what he actually did, but what he stood for.... Men like him may be done to death, but their message is not silenced in the making of this century

Lenin working in the Kremlin, 1918

By D.A. Longley

A study of Lenin by D.A. Longley which questions the usual criteria by which the great Soviet leader's influence and legacy are judged.