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Volume 65 Issue 12 December 2015

The church was consecrated on December 28th, 1065.

The white supremacist group was founded on December 24th, 1865.

The mathematician and pioneering computer programmer was born on December 10th, 1815.

A three-month frost fair began on November 24th, 1715.

From Aristotle to El Alamein, via the Silk Road and Charlemagne's vast empire, ten leading historians tell us about their best books from 2015.

Seconded to central Africa following the outbreak of the Second World War, John Cadbury became a master of logistics in one of the world’s toughest environments, as David Birmingham reveals. 

A photograph taken during the Great Depression prompts Roger Hudson to re-evaluate Roosevelt’s New Deal.

The struggle between King John and his barons turned into open warfare at Rochester Castle in 1215. Yet the story of how the fortress came to be besieged has not been fully understood, says Marc Morris.

Though attention this year has been focused on the bicentenary of the Battle of Waterloo, the decisive blows that defeated Napoleon were landed at sea, says James Davey. 

New perspectives on the Holocaust are possible if we transcend the limitations of German national history and consider it as a global catastrophe, argues Timothy Snyder.

The civilisation that arose in the Indus valley around 5,000 years ago was only discovered in the early 20th century. Andrew Robinson looks at what we know about this extraordinary culture.

We may know it when we see it, but corruption is not a fixed concept. Mark Knights explains how 300 years of scandal have forged perceptions of what is – and what is not – corrupt. 

The First World War threw together people from all over the world. Anna Maguire considers images of these chance meetings and the light they shed on a global conflict.

England’s legal system, which has since spread beyond its country of origin, resulted from an uncommon combination of centuries of input from a wide variety of sources. Harry Potter traces its roots and follows its branches.

How far did Napoleon’s Corsican childhood and his father’s role in the island’s brief period of autonomy influence his later life?

One of the most resilient clichés in the historiography on medieval Italy is the one according to which, when it comes to urban history, Rome...

How can we understand contemporary Italy? A country where Silvio Berlusconi held sway for some 20 years or so has had some serious image problems...

Histories of Russia’s involvement in the First World War have long turned on the question of whether 1914 caused...

After 19th-century scholarship had placed the origins of civilisation in the ‘fertile crescent’ from Iran to the Levant, it was tempting to look...

The obelisk is that which now graces the south lawn of Kingston Lacy, a magnificent National Trust property in Dorset. The Englishman is the...

Saladin – victor over the Shi‘i Fatimid caliphate of Cairo, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, conqueror of Jerusalem – looms large in the history of...

In what sense is the world of Byzantium lost? Jonathan Harris initially answers that important question by reference to the 16th-century French...

On May 7th, 2015, as the polls closed, it seemed certain that the Tories or, more likely, Labour, would have to form a coalition or govern Britain...

Although Peter Frankopan’s latest book is written as popular history, such was its scope that I approached the preface expecting an academic...

It is not easy to capture the wonder of the first controlled heavier-than-air flight, the stunned amazement of the onlookers, but David McCullough...