Pakistan

Seventy years on from its creation, crisis-ridden Pakistan is a very different country from the one envisioned by its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 

When India and Pakistan gained independence from Britain in 1947, the region’s Princely States – including tiny Sikkim – became pawns in South Asia’s great power politics, as Andrew Duff explains.

In 1987 Pakistan was widely regarded as being economically ahead of its much larger neighbour, India. Pakistan’s GDP was $390 per head compared...

Nationalist movements, by their very nature, claim to be exclusive, anchored to a specific place through shared links of blood or soil or past...

Victory over the tribesmen on the North-west frontier of British India, writes James Lunt, is still commemorated by Sikh regiments.

Lucy Chester examines the processes by which the Indo-Pakistan border was drawn, dividing a single country into two.

M. Naeem Qureshi on a remnant of empire which has moved beyond being a mere repository of the Raj.

Jean Alphonse Bernard considers the two key provinces and how they became touchstones and then powderkegs in the nationalist aspirations of both sides.

Vernon Hewitt on one of the bitterest legacies of partition.

Francis Robinson considers what the Muslims wanted - and what they got - out of the decision to divide the subcontinent on religious lines.