The reforming Tsar sought to westernise his empire, yet in 1723 he published an uncompromising reassertion of his absolutist doctrine, which has traditionally marked Russia’s national consciousness, says Antony Lentin.
What does Russia’s history of political assassination reveal about its rulers?
Daniel Beer reassesses W. Bruce Lincoln’s 1976 study of Tsar Alexander III’s brief reign, which combined reaction with rapid industrialisation and left a troubling legacy for his successors.
Westerners often consider Russia through the prism of the Soviet Union and the Second World War. But we must look further back if we wish to understand the modern nation’s fears, aims and motivations.
Roger Hudson details the political and social events that provided Tsar Nicholas II’s prewar visit to Kiev with a tense background.
After many negotiations and much pressure, writes Henry McAleavy, the Russians acquired from China the Amur Provinces of Eastern Siberia.
Robin Bruce Lockhart traces the development of Russia's fleets, from the Napoleonic era to the Soviet period.
In 1773, writes A. Lentin, the radical philosophe paid a difficult visit to his patroness in St Petersburg.
To deal with revolutionary violence and social unrest, writes Patricia Wright, the Tsar granted one of his generals almost dictatorial powers.
The great Emperor was a powerful sovereign, but, writes Ian Grey, disappointed in his weak and nervous son, Peter proved a stern and cruel parent.